Can an apple a day keep the doctor away?
Apples are known to be nutritious and loaded with antioxidants, such as polyphenols and vitamin C.
Numerous population studies have affirmed the health benefits of apple consumption:
1. Lower risk of cardiovascular disease 1
2. Reduced risk in cancer in different anatomical sites 2
3. Lower risk of Type 2 Diabetes in women 3
4. Lower risk of mortality 4
Is eating an apple a day sufficient to maintain or promote health and wellness? The answer is NO. One apple is never enough. Let me explain in my next blog.
1 Aune D, Giovannucci E, Boffetta P, Fadnes LT, Keum N, Norat T, Greenwood DC, Riboli E, Vatten LJ, Tonstad S. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality-a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Jun 1;46(3):1029-1056. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyw319. PMID: 28338764; PMCID: PMC5837313.
2 Fabiani R, Minelli L, Rosignoli P. Apple intake and cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Oct;19(14):2603-17. doi: 10.1017/S136898001600032X. Epub 2016 Mar 22. PMID: 27000627.
3 Alperet DJ, Butler LM, Koh WP, Yuan JM, van Dam RM. Influence of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit consumption on risk of type 2 diabetes in an Asian population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):736-745. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.147090. Epub 2017 Feb 8. PMID: 28179225; PMCID: PMC5320416.
4 Bondonno NP, Lewis JR, Blekkenhorst LC, Bondonno CP, Shin JH, Croft KD, Woodman RJ, Wong G, Lim WH, Gopinath B, Flood VM, Russell J, Mitchell P, Hodgson JM. Association of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods with all-cause mortality: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Clin Nutr. 2020 Jan;39(1):141-150. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.01.004. Epub 2019 Jan 17. PMID: 30718096.